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Thai Particles


A non-tonal language such as English uses stress and tone to change the feeling and mood of a sentence. Asking someone to "Come here!", depending on the tone of the voice, can completely change the meaning from a mild entreaty to a forceful command.
A tonal language like Thai, where the meaning of a word is determined by the tone or pitch of the voice - uses words, usually tacked onto the end of a sentence, called particles (คำลงท้าย), to convey emotion and feeling. These particles are used in Thai because if you tried to express feeling and mood through intonation of voice, it may interfere with the tone (and therefore meaning) of a word.

As well as mood particles, and as a likely reflection of the hierarchical and class structure of Thai society, Thai also has several polite particles such as KHRAP ครับ, KHA คะ/ค่ะ, KHRAP-PHOM ครับผม etc (see below) which are added to the end of a sentence to indicate deference and respect to the addressee.
Polite particles play an important role in Thai culture where face and harmonius relations are often at a premium. Use of the appropriate polite particle in a sentence can add just the right amount of politeness for a given situation.

To summarize, these particles, which are unnecessary in English, add feeling, mood, deference and politeness to Thai speech.

Particles are used in informal Thai, that is, Thai as used in everyday speech, Internet chat rooms, message boards and comics etc. However, no particles (with the exception of some of the polite particles) are used in formal Thai. For example, if you as a government official write a formal letter to your colleagues or your superiors, particles will be omitted completely. This also applies to Ministerial Regulations, Royal Decrees, Ministerial Notifications, Judgments, and the like.

Particles come naturally to native Thai speakers and they don't really think too much about them. Westerners learning the Thai language however, are often particularly interested in speech particles because they can, in the most extreme cases, completely change the mood (and therefore meaning) of a sentence and are thus very useful words to be aware of.
For example:
ARAI NA อะไรนะ - What is it? (NA นะ is a polite particle or softener).
ARAI WA อะไรวะ - What the hell do you want? (WA วะ - Impolite particle).
PAI NAI MAI JA ไปไหนมาจ๊ะ - Where have you been, dear? (JA จ๊ะ can be used as a polite, caring particle).
PAI NAI MA WA ไปไหนมาวะ - Where the hell have you been? (eg may be said if you're late for a date etc).

Despite their importance, particles are invariably poorly explained and neglected in Thai-English dictionaries.
This web page attempts to redress this and lists all the particles that I am aware of. I have endeavoured to distinguish between literary, colloquial and gender forms, since some particles are only used in one instance. The list of particles is arranged in transliterated alphabetical order, to make searching them easier. Also included is a smaller section on exclamatory particles (คำอุทาน). I hope the information gathered here will be of some use to you.
Mastering Thai particles will set you on course to speak as fluently and naturally as a native Thai speaker. Enjoy!

As a final point, it should be noted that:
Except for the polite words KHRAP ครับ and KHA คะ/ค่ะ (see below), the use of particles depends on a person's individual speaking style: some people use them a lot, others don't. In general they add informality and playfulness to spoken Thai. (Reference (2), P.287).

Particle Index

AH! (l) อ่ะ/อะ
AH! DI! อ่ะดิ
AI! (f) ไอ้
CHEE-OH เชียว
DEH! (h) เด๊ะ - see entry for DI!
DI! (l) ดิ
DUAY (f) ด้วย
EE อี
FA! (h) ฟะ
FUH-EE (h) เฟ้ย
GRA!-MANG! กระมัง
HA! (h) ฮะ
HA! (f) ฮ่ะ
HAE! (h) แฮะ
HUR! (l) เหอะ
JA จ๊ะ/จ้ะ/จ๋า
JEE-OH เจียว
JI! (l) จิ
KHA! (h) คะ/KHA! (f) ค่ะ
KHA (r) ขา
KHA! (f)-THAN (f) ค่ะท่าน
KHRAP! (h) ครับ
KHRAP! (h)-PHOM! (r) ครับผม
KHRAP! (f)-THAN (f) ครับท่าน
LA! (f) ล่ะ
LA! (h) ละ
LAE! (l) แหละ
LUH-EE เลย
MANG! (h) มั้ง
NA! (h) นะ
NA! (f) น่ะ
NAE! (l) แหน่ะ
NAW (r) หนอ
NAW! (h) เนาะ, NUR! (h) เนอะ and NUR (h) เน้อ
NEE (f) นี่
NEE (f)-NA นี่นา
NGAI! ไง
NI! (h) นิ
NIA (f) เนี่ย
NOI (l) หน่อย
PHA! (h) - YA! (f) - KHA! (f) พะย่ะค่ะ
PHAY - KA! (h) เพคะ
RAWK (l) หรอก
SA! (h) ซะ
SA! (h) NOI (l) ซะหน่อย
SI! (h) ซิ
THUH! (l)/THUHT (l) เถอะ/เถิด
UH-EE เอย/เอ่ย/เอ๋ย
WA! (h)/WA! (f)/WOEY (h) วะ/ว่ะ/โว้ย
YA! (h)/YA! (f) ยะ/ย่ะ

Thai Particle List

AH! (l) อ่ะ/อะ
Does not dramatically change the meaning of a sentence; is used in Spoken Thai mainly by teenagers. It seems to be a more informal form of NA นะ or LA ล่ะ (see entries below for NA and LA).

Reference 1, P. 131, describes AH! (l) อ่ะ as a shortened version of LA! (f) (see entry below).
PAI THAM MAI AH! ไปทำไมอ่ะ - Why are you going?

Reference 2, P. 292: This comes from NA (see below). It's used informally at the end of questions.
GIN ARAI AH กินอะไรอ่ะ - What are you eating?
THAM ARAI AH ทำอะไรอ่ะ - What are you doing?
KHRAI AH ใครอ่ะ - Who is it?

I have also seen it used at the end of statements.
A: NGUANG MAI KRAP ง่วงไหมครับ - Are you tired?
B: NIT NOI AH นิดหน่อยอ่ะ - A little.

A: KHEUN NEE PAI NAI MA คืนนี้ไปไหนมา- Where have you been tonight?
B: DOO NANG AH ดูหนังอ่ะ - Went to the movies.

A: LAEW AH-GAHT THEE-NAN PEN NGAI BAHNG แล้วอากาศที่นั่นเป็นไงบ้าง - And what's the weather like there?
B: AH-GAHT RAWN AH...BAHNG THEE FON GAW TOK อากาศร้อนอ่ะ...บางทีฝนก็ตก - Hot, with some rain.

YAI MA YOO MEUANG THAI SI...MEUANG THAI NA-YOO AH ย้ายมาอยู่เมืองไทยสิ...เมืองไทยน่าอยู่อ่ะ - Come and live in Thailand...Thailand's a very attractive country to live in!

Sometimes used on its own means 'Uhm'; sometimes used to add emphasis.
eg KHIT THEUNG AH! - คิดถึงอ่ะ - Miss you lots!

You can hear a couple of examples of the use of AH in the Thai film AH-THAN GAE BON PHEE อาถรรพ์แก้บนผี where MOSS calls out to her friends MUAY and PIN as they enter the haunted house:
1. MUAY...PIN...PAI NAI AH หมวย...ปิ่น...ไปไหนอ่ะ - MUAY...PIN...Where are you going?
2. MUAY...PIN...GAE YOO NAI AH - หมวย...ปิ่น...แกอยู่ไหนอ่ะ - MUAY...PIN...Where are you?
In these two examples, AH is equivalent to LA (f) ล่ะ.

AH! DI! อ่ะดิ
This is a slang word placed at the end of statements, similar in meaning to NA SI นะซิ (see entries below for NA and SI). It tends to be used by teenagers.
Can be used in speech and writing.
MAN GAW YOO NAI GRAPAO AH! DI! - มันก็อยู่ในกระเป๋าอ่ะดิ - It's in the bag.

A:KHAO CHEU MICHAEL REU PLAO เขาชื่อไมเคิลรึเปล่า - Is he called Michael?
B: GAW CHAI AH! DI! ก็ใช่ อ่ะดิ - That's right.

Another example may be if A is chatting to B and B says something incorrect, and B acknowledges this by saying "Oops!":
A: PHUT PIT LA SI พูดผิดล่ะสิ - Did you make a mistake there?
B: GAW CHAI AH DI (NA SI) ก็ใช่อ่ะดิ(นะซิ) - Yes, I did.

AI! (f) ไอ้
Particle indicating contempt, familiarity or playful banter, placed before a man's (or animal's) name.
AI! DEK KON NAN PAI NAI ไอ้เด็กคนนั้นไปไหน - Where's that damned boy?
AI! PHOOCHAI KON NAN ไอ้ผู้ชายคนนั้น- That bloody man!
AI! BA ไอ้บ้า - You lunatic!
AI! NGOH ไอ้โง่ - You Fool!
AI! HIA ไอ้เหี้ย - You bastard!
AI! SAT! ไอ้สัตว์ - You bastard!

Note that in Central Thai, the use of AI! (f) ไอ้ is generally considered rude. The exception appears to be in some of the Thai dialects; eg in Isaan dialect, AI! ไอ้ can be used as a term of affection when placed before someone's name.
AI! Peter ไอ้ปีเตอร์ or AI! Somchai ไอ้สมชาย.
AI! ไอ้ can also be used among intimates in Isaan as a 'cute putdown' if someone's cheeky eg AI MA ไอ้หมา or AI (name), where 'name' is someone's name.

The female equivalent of AI! ไอ้ is EE อี (see below), and it's used in a similar way to AI! ไอ้.

Note that strictly speaking, AI ไอ้ is the prefix for males and EE อี for females, but in practice AI ไอ้ can also sometimes be used for females too.
The local street vendor may call her husband AI GAE ไอ้แก่ (old man) and he may likewise call her AI OO-AN ไอ้อ้วน (fatty) in playful banter. The use of AI ไอ้ rather than EE อี is less vulgar/offensive. (reference 9).

There is is also the similar sounding word (but with long vowel length), AI (f) อ้าย, which is used in Isaan dialect to mean PHEE พี่ (older/elder brother).
NAI PHASA ISAAN THA BAWK WA AI SOMCHAI GAW MAI THEUNG SOMCHAI KHAO PEN PHEE KHUN ในภาษาอีสาน ถ้าบอกว่า อ้ายสมชาย ก็หมายถึง สมชายเค้าเป็นพี่คุณ - In Isaan dialect, if you say, AI SOMCHAI, it means he's your older/elder brother (note: not necessarily real brother, but you respect him in that way ie a PHEE-NAWNG พี่น้อง relationship).

CHEE-OH เชียว
Reference 3, p.309 describes CHEE-OH as a particle similar in meaning to JEE-OH เจียว (see entry below for JEE-OH), although CHEE-OH is less archaic than JEE-OH and is still used in modern Thai.
It functions as an intensifier and is also used to denote the imperative.
I am not really sure if CHEE-OH is a true particle, but I have included it nevertheless for the sake of completeness.
WAN NEE SUAY CHEE-OH วันนี้ สวยเชียว - You’re looking really pretty today. (Intensifier).

HAHM BORK KHWAHM LAP NEE GAP KHRAI CHEE-OH ห้ามบอกความลับนี้กับใครเชียว - Don’t tell this secret to anyone. Ok? (Imperative).

A: KHAO DOO NARAK JANG LUHY เขาดูน่ารักจังเลย - She looks really cute.
B: CHAI...NARAK TA TOH CHEE-OH ใช่...น่ารักตาโตเชียว - Yes, cute with really big eyes. (Intensifier).

HEUNG (l) CHEE-OH หึ่งเชียว - Very stinky!

NA-SON CHEE-OH น่าสนเชียว - Very interesting!

MA SA DEUK CHEE-OH มาซะดึกเชียว - You've come so late!

LAW CHEE-OH หล่อเชียว - Really Handsome!

NA-RAK CHEE-OH น่ารักเชียว - How cute!

Reference 4, p. 147:
A word added for emphasis, right, really, indeed
ทำเดี๋ยวนี้เชียว - Do it right now!

DI! (l) ดิ
Particle placed at the end of a sentence to denote the imperative, emphasis or request. Similar in meaning to SI! (see below) - but more informal. Used by both males and females. A fairly common particle and I have come across it in Internet chat rooms and in speech. It tends to be used amongst friends (equal in status), or to people younger than you, but is not really suitable for use with elders. I came across one report stating that it's only used by children, but I have seen it used by people in their 20s, so I don't think this is correct.
PHUT DI พูดดิ - Say something! (imperative).
CHAI DI! ใช่ดิ - That's right! (emphasis).
MAI ROO DI ไม่รู้ดิ - I don't know (emphasis).
CHUAY NOI DI ช่วยหน่อยดิ - Help me, ok? (request).
ฺBORK KHAO DI บอกเขาดิ - Do tell him! (imperative).
SONG ROOP MA DI สงรูปมาดิ - Send your photo (imperative).
SONG MA THANG FILE DI สงมาทางไฟล์ดิ - Send it by file (imperative).
PIM THAI DI พิมพ์ไทยดิ - Type Thai [Not English] (imperative).

You can hear an example of DI in the Thai film AH-THAN GAE BON PHEE อาถรรพ์แก้บนผี where MOSS calls out to her friends MUAY and PIN as they enter the haunted house:
MUAY...PIN...RAW DUAY DI หมวย...ปิ่น...รอด้วยดิ - MUAY...PIN...Wait for me!

DI ดิ can also sometimes be spelt/pronounced in reduced form as DEH! (h) เด๊ะ. As far as I understand it, DEH and DI are equivalent, just different styles.
HUH-EE MUA LAEW...THAM DEE DEE DEH เฮ้ย มั่วแล้ว...ทำดีๆเด๊ะ - Hey, it's wrong. Do it properly! (taken from a Thai cartoon).

LONG LAEW AH DEH หลงแล้วอ่ะเด๊ะ - Lost, aren't we! (taken from a Thai cartoon).

DUAY (f) ด้วย
A softener (makes things sound more polite).
Reference (1), P. 130: This particle is typically used in polite requests, apologies and cries for help...
CHECK BIN DUAY - Can I have the bill please?
SIA JAI DUAY NA เสียใจด้วยนะ - I'm sorry (sad).
CHUAY DUAY ช่วยด้วย - Help!
PLAE DUAY แปลด้วย - Please translate it.
KHAW MAY-NOO DUAY ขอเมนูด้วย - Can I have the menu?
CHUAY THAM HAI MAI PHET MAHK DUAY ช้วยทำให้ไม่เผ็ดมากด้วย - Can you make it not too spicy?

You can hear an example of DUAY in the Thai film AH-THAN GAE BON PHEE อาถรรพ์แก้บนผี where MOSS calls out to her friends MUAY and PIN as they enter the haunted house:
MUAY...PIN...RAW DUAY DI หมวย...ปิ่น...รอด้วยดิ - MUAY...PIN...Wait for me!

EE อี
The female equivalent of AI! ไอ้ (see above), used in a similar way to AI! ไอ้. As with AI! ไอ้, it can be used to indicate variously: contempt, familiarity or playful banter.
Rude examples include:
EE DORK อีดอก- You whore/harlot!
EE GAE RAENG THEUNG! อีแก่แร้งทึ้ง - You old hag!
EE MA อีหมา- You dog!

FA! (h) ฟะ
Similar in meaning to WA! วะ/ว่ะ (see below), but a little politer. Can be used by both males and females. OK to use amongst friends, but outside this group likely to be taken as rude/impolite.
KHAO PEN KHRAI FA เขาเปนใครฟะ - Who the hell is he?

KHUR-EE SONG-SAI TUA ENG WA LEUAK RIAN PHASA NEE THAM-MAI FA เคยสงสัยตัวเองว่าเลือกเรียนภาษานี้ทำไมฟะ - I thought to myself, why the hell (why on earth) did I choose to learn this language?

THAM-MAI KHAO MSN MAI DAI FA...SENG LUHY...KHRAI MEUAN RAO BAHNG AH ทำไมเข้า MSN ไม่ได้ฟะ…เซ็งเลย...ใครเหมือนเราบ้างอ่ะ - Why the hell can’t I log on to MSN? I’m really fed up. Anyone else got the same problem?

NAH-BEUA LAEW...KHAO MA THAM-MAI FA น่าเบื่อแล้ว...เข้ามาทำไมฟะ - I'm bored. Why the hell did I come here?

ARAI FA อะไรฟะ - What the hell is it/do you want?

FUH-EE (h) เฟ้ย
Similar in meaning to WOEY โว้ย (see below). Can be used by both males and females. I think this is quite a rare particle.
Informal, used in Spoken Thai.
MAI CHEUA LAEW NA FUH-EE ไม่เชื่อแล้วนะเฟ้ย - I don't believe you! (But said in an impolite way - the use of FUH-EE เฟ้ย makes this impolite).

TOO JEP KHAW FUH-EE...MAI MEE SIANG ตูเจ็บคอเฟ้ย...ไม่มีเสียง - I've got a sore throat and lost my voice!

HUR...RAWN FUH-EE...THAM-MAI MAN RAWN YAHNG NEE เฮ้อ ร้อนเฟ้ย ทำไมมันร้อนอย่างนี้ - Sigh. It's damn hot. Why is it so hot?

As with WA/WOEY (see entry below), FUH-EE can be used amongst friends and intimates but is likely to be taken as impolite with strangers.

GRA-MANG กระมัง
Perhaps, maybe, to presume. Formal form of MANG มั้ง (see below), used in writing, not speech.
Reference (3):
A particle used to express doubt or sarcasm rather than a straight question.
KHUN AHT-JA MAI RANGIAT GRA-MANG คุณอาจจะไม่รังเกียจกระมัง - Perhaps you don't mind.

HA! (h) ฮะ
Less formal version of KRAP!/KHA! ครับ/คะ used with friends/intimates. Can be used by both males and females.

HA! (f) ฮ่ะ
A less formal version of KHA! (f) ค่ะ, used by females.
You can hear an example of HA (f) in the Thai film AH-THAN GAE BON PHEE อาถรรพ์แก้บนผี, said by MOSS มอส to her mother when she offers her some food:
IM LA HA อิ่มละฮ่ะ - I'm full.

HAE (h) แฮะ
This particle seems to be mainly used in the context of denoting/emphasising uncertainty or when you ponder something:
eg (reference 5):
A: KHROO GAP AHJAHN TAHNG-GAN YAHNG RAI ครูกับอาจารย์ต่างกันอย่างไร - What's the difference between 'AHJAHN' and 'KHROO'?
B: REUANG NEE TAWP YARK HAE เรื่องนี้ตอบยากแฮะ - Wow! This is difficult, eeh!

A: THEE ANGRIT GEE MONG LAEW ที่อังกฤษกี่โมงแล้ว - What time is it in England now?
B: MAI ROO HAE ไม่รู้แฮะ - Gee, I don’t know...

GONG HAE งงแฮะ - I'm really confused!

GRA-THOO NEE JENG...CHAWP HAE กระทู้นี้เจ๋ง...ชอบแฮะ! - That's a really neat question. I like it! [Here HAE แฮะ seems to be used for emphasis].

KHRAI KHA NIA...JAM MAI DAI HAE ใครคะเนี่ย...จำไม่ได้แฮะ - Who's this? I can't remember (you)...

HUR! (l) เหอะ
A particle similar in meaning to TUH! เถอะ (see separate entry in this table for this particle), but more informal.
Used to denote the imperative.
OK to use amongst friends, but likely to be taken as impolite/too familiar if used with strangers.
You can hear an example of its use in the Thai film 'SOM BANK MEU MAI HAT KHAI' (2001) (ส้ม แบงค์ มือใหม่หัดขาย - SOM and BANK Learn to Sell), where BANK tells his girlfriend SOM to stop working in the bar:
SOM...LUHK HUR! ส้ม...เลิกเหอะ - SOM...Quit (your job), ok?

Another example can be heard in the film Last Life in the Universe, where NOI น้อย says to her Japanese friend KENJI:
GLAP BAHN HUR กลับบ้านเหอะ - Let's go home.

More examples:
PLOI KHAO PAI HUR ปล่อยเค้าไปเหอะ - Let him go.
AHP HUR อาบเหอะ - Have a wash.
PAI GAN HUR ไปกันเหอะ - Let's go.
PAI KHUI GAP KON EUN HUR ไปคุยกับคนอื่นเหอะ - Go and chat with someone else.
PUHT FAI HUR เปิดไฟเหอะ - Switch on the light.
PAI NAWN HUR ไปนอนเหอะ - Go to bed!
CHANG MAN HUR...LUHK KHUI GAP KHAO HUR ช่างมันเหอะ...เลิกคุยกับเขาเหอะ - Who cares/forget it!...stop chatting with him.

As mentioned previously, HUR เหอะ is likely to be taken as impolite if used with strangers. A politer way to say 'switch on the light' with someone might be eg:
PUHT FAI HAI NOI SI KHA เปิดไฟให้หน่อยซิคะ - Please switch on the light.

There are 3 forms of JA in common usage, namely, JA! (h) จ๊ะ, JA! (f) จ้ะ and JA (r) จ๋า (see the three entries below for more detail), differing in tone and vowel length. They have varied and different uses. On a very basic level, they may be thought of as less formal versions of KHRAP/KHA ครับ/คะ/ค่ะ.

reference 2:
[JA! (h)/JA! (f) จ๊ะ/จ้ะ] are more friendly and informal than KHRAP/KHA ครับ/คะ/ค่ะ. The pronunciation is high/short with questions or when you're offering something to someone…and falling/short with responses…

In my experience, when you hear a new Thai acquaintance of the opposite sex begin to replace the more formal KHRAP/KHA with JA (h)/ JA (f) in their speech, it's a sign they feel more at ease in your company and that a friendship (or more) may be developing.
Men don't tend to use JA with each other, unless they are gay.
Can also sometimes be used by older men and women to younger girls/boys (under 12).

Familiar and vulgar equivalents of JA are WA วะ/ว่ะ and WOEY โว้ย (see entries below).

More detail on the 3 forms of JA:

JA! (h) จ๊ะ
My dear; Particle used by a man or woman, usually to an equal or inferior, after a vocative [such] as 'THEE RAK ที่รัก'. (Reference 3);

Reference 1:
Used by adult male and female speakers at the end of questions when talking to children, servants or people of markedly lower social status; used as a 'sweet-talk' question particle between males and females or as a 'best friends' question particle between females; used after the name of a child, servant or inferior to attract that person's attention; used in polite requests after the particle SI! ซิ.
THUR JA PAI GAP CHAN MAI JA - เธอจะไปกับฉันไหมจ๊ะ - Will you go with me?

THAM-MAI LA JA...MEE ARAI REU PLAO ทำไมล่ะจ๊ะ...มีอะไรหรือเปล่า - Why...Is there something the matter?

You can hear an example of JA (h) จ๊ะ in the Thai film JAN GA-PHAW จันทน์กะพัอ when PHILAI พิไล tells her employee/love interest in the film to go and rest after he is roughed up by the police:
KHON JEP...THAM MAI MAI PAI PHAK PHAWN JA คนเจ็บ...ทำไมไม่ไปพักผ่อนจ๊ะ - You're in pain, why don't you go and rest?

JA! (f) จ้ะ
Yes; a term of assent.

Reference 1:
Used by adult male and female speakers at the end of a statement when speaking to children, servants and people of inferior status; between males and females denotes anything from easy familiarity to 'sweet talk'; between females signals 'best friends talk'; used as a response when one's name is called (when the vowel is often lengthened to JA (f) จ้า); used in isolation as a 'yes' response; used to reassure speaker of one's attention (JA (f) จ้า…JA (f)จ้า…JA (f) จ้า) when the vowel is normally lengthened; used after MAI (f) ไม่ to mean 'No'.
A: KHUN JA PAI CHIENG MAI MAI JA คุณจะไปเชียงใหม่ไหมจ๊ะ - Will you go to Chieng Mai?
B: PAI JA ไปจ้ะ - Yes.

A: CHAN KHAO PAI DAI MAI KHA ฉันเข้าไปได้ไหมคะ - Can I go in?
B: JA KHAO MA SI จ้ะเข้ามาซิ - Yes, come in.

JA (f) จ้ะ can often be used by a parent to child, to soften the sentence and show love.
MAE RAK LOOK JA...NAHNG FAH KHAWNG MAE แม่รักลูกจ้ะ นางฟ้าของแม่ - Mother loves you my angel.

You can hear an example of JA (f) จ้ะ in the Thai film JAN GA-PHAW จันทน์กะพัอ when INTHAWN อินทร offers to walk his employer/love interest PHILAI พิไล back to the house as a safety precaution against the murderer who is still at large. PHILAI replies:
YA LUH-EE...DEUK LAEW JA - อย่าเลย...ดึกแล้วจ๊ะ - Don't worry (it's not necessary). It's late.

As a final example of JA (f) จ้ะ, I once heard a taxi driver talking to a lady while driving her to her destination. As she listened to him, she periodically replied JA (f) จ้า to him to indicate that she was following what he was saying.

JA (r) จ๋า
Particle used to answer a call or indicate that the preceding noun is in the vocative case. Can be used by a woman or man. Can also be used to show tenderness and intimacy between girlfriend and boyfriend when placed after a person's name. I remember one Thai girl saying with a sparkle in her eyes how she loved when her boyfriend used JA (r) จ๋า after her name when speaking to her. However, it's most probably best to use JA (r) sparingly with a partner, since overuse may leave you sounding too sugary-sweet and insincere.

Reference (2):
This is flowery language used with your mother, child or spouse. It shows more tenderness than the previous JA…
A: THEE-RAK JA ที่รักจ๋า - Darling...?
B: JA...MEE ARAI ROR JA THEE-RAK จ๋า มีอะไรเหรอจ๊ะที่รัก - Yes dear, did you want something?

THEE RUK JA SABAI DEE MAI ที่รักจ๋า สบายดีไหม- How are you, my dear?

Note that JA จ๋า (long, rising) should not be used in interrogative sentences ie to end questions eg the following would be incorrect:
NEE ARAI JA นี่อะไรจ๋า ที่รัก - What's this my dear?
and would be better written:
NEE ARAI JA นี่อะไรจ๊ะ ที่รัก - What's this my dear?

You can hear an example of JA จ๋า in the thai film Born to Fight, when the local village NAK LENG นักเลง (tough guy), THAP ทัพ, calls out to MALI มะลิ, the object of his affections:
MALI JA ...PAI NAI JA มะลิจ๋าๆ...ไปไหนจ๊า - Mali darling..where are you going?

As a final point, it should be noted that while both men and women can use JA จ๊ะ/จ้ะ/จ๋า, a few Thais I have talked to say that over-use of JA by males, may give the impression you're gay. The exception appears to be when sweet-talking a girl, Thai men will sometimes use JA to soften their speech and create a favourably 'sweet impression'.

JEE-OH เจียว
This particle is archaic and not really used in modern Thai, but is included here for the sake of completeness. Modern usage of เจียว however, ‘can be used to denote humour’, although it’s quite rare.

Reference 3, p. 262: A particle used as an intensive only in questions or commands; KHAO JA THAM YAHNG NAN JEE-OH REU - เขาจะทำอย่างนั้นเจี่ยวหรือ - Will he do quite that? PAI DEEOW NEE JEE-OH - ไปเดี๋ยวนี้เจียว - Go this very moment. - Synonyms เชียว, เถิด, นะ, ซิ.

JI! (l) จิ
Particle placed at the end of a sentence, similar in meaning to SI ซิ (see below). An informal particle, rarely used in speech, mainly used in Internet chat rooms.
Not used in writing.
Used by both males and females.
1. A: YANG YOO PA ยังอยู่ปะ - Are you still there?
B: YOO JI อยู่จิ - I'm still here.
2. MAI ROO JI ไม่รู้จิ - I don't know. (adds emphasis here).
3. MA JI มาจิ - Come on/come here (imperative).
4. AO JI เอาจิ - I want it/something (imperative).
5. KHAO MA JI เข้ามาจิ - Come on in. (imperative).

KHA! (h) คะ/KHA! (f) ค่ะ
Sir, madam, yes, yes sir, yes madam.
This is the most common polite particle used by females (and GATOEY กะเทย). As a general rule, KHA (h) is used at the end of questions, KHA (f) at the end of statements.
An exception to this female-only-usage rule appears to be if a man is sweet-talking his girlfriend/spouse etc. He may then use KHA to convey intimacy and sensitivity. For example, he may say FAN DEE NA KHA ฝันดีนะค่ะ or FAN DEE KHA ฝันดีค่ะ (sweet dreams/sleep tight!) to express warmth and caring. Or he could say RAK KHA...KHIT THEUNG KHA รักค่ะ...คิดถึงค่ะ - Love you...miss you!
Another exception is when a man is talking to a child (female), he may again use KHA (h) to show a sense of caring.
Unless you are a very accomplished Thai speaker, it's most probably best not to try to use KHA in these ways though.

KHA (r) ขา
This is a variant of KHA! คะ/ค่ะ (see above). It is a polite and sweet-sounding particle, similar in meaning to JA (r) จ๋า (see above), but restricted to female usage.
Usually used to gain attention or respond to someone calling you.
Girl: KHUN MAE KHA คุณแม่ขา - Mother...?
Mother: KHA ขา - Yes dear? [Denotes affection here.]

THUH JEUNG REEP WING PAI FAWNG KHUN KHROO WA "KHUN KHROO KHA SOMCHAI KHAO GLAENG NOO KHA" เธอจึงรีบวิ่งไปฟ้องคุณครูว่า "คุณครูขา ด.ช.สมชายเค้าแกล้งหนูค่ะ" - So she ran to the teacher and complained: Sir, SOMCHAI has been annoying me!" [Used to show politeness/respect to the teacher].

PAW KHA CHUAY CHAN DUAY พ่อขาช่วยฉันด้วย - Daddy, please help me.

PHEE James KHA...YOO THEE NAI KHA พี่เจมส์ขา...อยู่ที่ไหนคะ - James?...where are you?

PAW KHA NOO KHAW PAI SEU LUK OM DAI MAI KHA พ่อขา หนูขอไปซื้อลูกอมได้ไหมค่ะ - Daddy, can I go out and buy some sweets?

Reference 3, P. 139: Particle used by a woman to answer a call or to indicate that the preceding noun is the vocative case.

KHA! (f)-THAN (f) ค่ะท่าน
Yes Sir.
This is a polite form of KHA (h)/KHA (f) (see above) used by females to older people, superiors (eg a boss, senior officer) etc to show respect. It's similar in meaning and usage to KHRAP (h)-PHOM (r) (see below).
Can also sometimes be used between friends to express a sense of PRA-CHOT PRA-CHAN ประชดประชัน (v. to be sarcastic) when asked to do something 'you're not entirely happy about doing'.
The male equivalent is KHRAP! (h)-THAN (f) ครับท่าน.

KHRAP! (h) ครับ
Sir, madam, yes, yes sir, yes madam.
This is the most common particle used by males if you want to sound polite. Its use is restricted to males only, and it can be used to address any age group, even to people younger than yourself, such as children.

One exception to this male-only-usage rule is that older women can sometimes use KHRAP to young boys. It's used to teach them both politeness and the correct male particle for a boy, and is often utilized in the context of trying to get them to do something or to try to convince them of something.
FANG PA NA KHRAP ฟังป้านะครับ - Listen to your auntie please.
Unless you are a very accomplished Thai speaker, it's most probably best not to try to use KHRAP in this way though.
You can hear an example of this female usage of KHRAP in the Thai film The Closet, when TAM ตั้ม says he's hungry, and his mother tells him to wait:
TAM ตั้ม: KHUN MAE KHRAP...TAM HEW KHAO LAEW KHRAP คุณแม่ครับ...ตั้มหิวข้าวแล้วครับ - Mummy, I'm hungry.
MAE แม่: AW...KHRAP...KHRAP...PAEP NEUNG NA LOOK NA อ๋อ ..ครับๆๆ แป๊บนึงนะลูกนะ - Yes, Yes. Just a minute.

Another example of women using KHRAP is that a mother may use KHRAP to her daughter when playing the 'role of the father speaking to the child', although this is relatively rare, and as might be expected, KHA is the most often used particle by mother to young daughter (reference 13).

I have also heard KHRAP ครับ used amongst lesbians. It's usually the 'butch' THAWM ทอม one that uses it, rather than the the 'fem' DEE (f) ดี้ one.

KHRAP (h)-PHOM (r) ครับผม
Can be translated as 'Yes sir', or 'yes'. A very polite form of KHRAP (h) (see above). Used when wanting to show special respect to someone eg a pupil when addressing a teacher, a shop assistant to a customer, or a taxi driver to a passenger. If you hear a taxi driver using this with you, the chances are you'll get a good journey, without too many detours.
Sometimes used in a humorous or sarcastic way in response to eg a girlfriend bossing you around.
It's also used in the military by junior soldiers when addressing higher-ranking officers. Female junior soldiers use the equivalent KHA (f)-THAN (f) ค่ะท่าน (see above) in this situation.
I have most often heard it used by males, although it can apparently also be used by females to address males they are familiar with, and by females to younger boys.
You will also occasionally hear older people using it with younger people too. Apparently it's a 'sign of manners' to do so, and is quite normal, despite the age disparity.
Not to be confused with the male personal pronoun GRA (l)-PHOM (r) กระผม (meaning 'I').

LA! (f) ล่ะ
Comes from หรือ. Has varied meanings and uses. When placed at the end of a sentence indicates a mild entreaty
LAEW KHUN LA แล้วคุณล่ะ - And how about you?
THAM MAI LA ทำไมล่ะ - Why?/why not?
THUR JA PAI GAP PHOM MAI LA เธอจะไปกับผมไหมล่ะ - Are you going with me?
TAE THAM MAI MAI HA NGAHN THAM LA KHA แต่ทำไมไม่หางานทำล่ะคะ - But why aren't you looking for any work?

Can be used to soften negative replies:
A: KHEUN NEE PAI TEEOW MAI KRAP คืนนี้ไปเที่ยวไหมครับ - Are you going out tonight?
B: MAI LA ไม่ล่ะ - No.

Also can convey a feeling of irritation, similar to 'why on earth?'
THAM MAI KHUN MAI DAI BORK POM LA ทำไมคุณไม่ได้บอกผมล่ะ - Why on earth didn't you tell me?

LA! (f) is sometimes shortened to AH! (f) อ่ะ in speech (see above for entry for AH!).

Note that in normal speech, apparently LA! (f) is actually pronounced with a low tone, as though it's spelt LA (l) หละ, unless it's followed by KHRAP ครับ or KHA คะ, when it takes a high tone.
You will often see LA spelt informally as หละ (eg on the internet) to reflect this low tone.

LA! (h) ละ
A shortened form of LAEW แล้ว.
Can indicate a state or situation has been reached or is about to change
PAI LA ไปละ - I'm going.
POR LA พอละ - That's enough.
DEE LA ดีละ - That's fine.
THOOK LA ถูกละ - That's right.
POM GLAP BAHN LA ผมกลับบ้านละ - I'm going home.

Can also be used to show mild irritation when used with EEK อีก
MA EEK LA มาอีกละ - You're back again.

LAE! (l) แหละ
Reference 3, P.1008: A particle used for emphasis in a similar manner to LA! (f) ล่ะ , having the mild force of just here, just there or just that.
PHOM PHUT DAI PIANG THAO NEE LAE ผมพูดได้เพียงเท่านี้แหละ - That's all I can say about it.

KHAO ORK PAI SIA DEEO NEE ENG LAE เขาออกไปเสียเดี๋ยวนี้เองแหละ - He just went out (you just missed him).

KHUN MEE KHOR GAE TUA THAO NEE ENG LAE ROR คุณมีขอแก้ตัวเท่านี่เองแหลเหรอ - Is that your only excuse? (Is that all you have to say for yourself?).

A: MEU-RAI JA RIAN JOP KHA เมื่อไหร่จะเรียนจบครับ - When will you graduate?
B: PEE NEE LAE KA ปีนี้แหละค่ะ - This summer. (ie this very year).

A: THAM ARAI NOI SI...KHUN GIN ARAI THEUNG SUAY ถามอะไรหน่อยซิ...คุณกินอะไรถึงสวย - Might I ask, what do you eat to look so beautiful?
B: GIN MEUAN THEE KHUN GIN NA LAE กินเหมือนที่คุณกินหน่ะแหละ - I eat just the same as you.

A: KHUN JUR KHAO THEE NAI KRAP คุณเจอเธอที่ไหนครับ - Where did you meet her? B: THEE NEE LAE ที่นี่แหละ - Here (ie in this very place).

RAO THAM NGAAN HOK WAN KHA THEE MEUANG THAI GOR THAM NGAAN YAHNG NEE LAE เราทำงาน 6 วันค่ะ ที่เมืองไทยก็ทำงานอย่างนี่แหละ - I work 6 days a week. That's the way it is in Thailand.

A: PHLEHNG NAI THEE PEN NEUNG NAI JAI KHUN TALAWT GAHN เพลงไหนที่เปงหนึ่งในใจคุงตลอดกาล - Which song is always on your mind?
B: UHM...PHLEHNG ARAI ROR...LAI PHLEHNG AH...MAI ROO... YAHK JANG...JING JING KHAWNG AVRIL...THUK PHLEHNG...PHEE CHORP MOT LAE อืม เพลงอะไรเหรอ หลายเพลงอ่ะ ไม่รู้ ยากจัง จริงๆ ของ Avril ทุกเพลง พี่ชอบหมดแหล่ะ Uhm…Which song?…Many songs. I don't know. That's difficult. Actually all of Avril's songs. I Just like all of them.

Reference 4, P. 550:
NAN LAE นั่นแหละ - That's it; that's the way it is; just so; indeed; yep; that very
PIM DEET KREUANG NAN LAE CHAI MA 50 PEE - พิมดีดเครื่องนั้นแหละ ใช้มา ๕๐ ปี - That very typewriter was used for 50 years.

NEE LAE นี้แหละ - Just like I said; you see; what did you expect?; just
MAI CHAI NAM SOM, MAI CHAI NAM WAAN, NAM RORN NEE LAE ไม่ใช่น้ำส้ม ไม่ใช่น้ำหวาน น้ำร้อนนี้แหละ - Not orange juice, not a soft drink, just hot water.

LUH-EE เลย
Dictionaries translate LUH-EE variously as…inter aliaat all, beyond, too much, to surpass, to top, so, too, past, on past a place, further, and then, so then, definitely, consequently etc, so I'm not really sure LUH-EE is a true particle since it's adequately described by these definitions. Nevertheless, it does seem to have particle-like properties when placed after verbs and phrases, where it's often used to denote emphasis, so I have included it here for the sake of completeness.
CHAI LUH-EE ช่ายเลย - How right that it is!

MEUANG THAI NA-YOO THEE-SUT NAI LOHK LUH-EE เมืองไทยน่าอยู่ที่สุดในโลกเลย - Thailand's the best place in the world to live!

A: LAW PAO หล่อป่าว - Handsome?
B: SUT KHAWNG KHWAHM LAW LUH-EE KHA สุดของความหล่อเลยค่ะ - The height of good looks!

KHUN HAI GAMLANG JAI DEE MAHK…RAO YIM YUH LUH-EE คุณให้กำลังใจดีมาก…เรายิ้มเยอะเลย - You're so encouraging…I'm smiling so much!

KHUN GENG MAHK LUH-EE คุณเก่งมากเลย - You're so clever!

PHASA THAI PHEE YEE-UM LUH-EE KHA ภาษาไทยพี่เยี่ยมเลยค่ะ! - Your Thai is really excellent!

A: SABAI DEE MAI JA สบายดีไหมจ๊ะ - How are you?
B: MAI DEE LUH-EE…MAI SABAI - ไม่ดีเลย…ไม่สบาย - Not good at all. I'm not well.

A: KHAO PHUT ARAI เขาพูดอะไร - What did he say?
B: KHAO MAI DAI PHUT ARAI LUH-EE เขาไม่ได้พูดอะไรเลย - He didn't say anything at all.

DEE JANG LUH-EE ดีจังเลย - That's good! (shows happiness). [The use of LUH-EE here indicates a greater degree of happiness than if it's left out].

YEE-UM YAWT LUH-EE JA เยี่ยมยอด เลยจ๊ะ - Brilliant!

A: KHAO JAI MAI KHRAP เข้าใจไหมครับ - Do you understand?
B: KHAO JAI JAEM JAENG LUH-EE KHA เข้าใจแจ่มแจ้งเลยค่ะ - I understand perfectly clearly!

MANG (h) มั้ง
Maybe, perhaps, I guess. Informal version of GRA-MANG (see above).
KIT WA KHAO KONG JA MAI CHORP MANG คิดว่าเขาคงจะไม่ชอบมั้ง - I think she might not like it.

SAI WAEN DEE GWA MANG ใส่แว่นดีกว่ามั้ง - Maybe you need glasses! (spectacles).

TAWN NEE AH-GAHT NAO KHA...YEN...PAH-YOO! KHAO MANG KHA ตอนนี้อากาศหนาวคะ เย็น พายุเข้ามั้งคะ - Now it's cold and chilly. Might be a storm coming.

HAHK MEUANG THAI MEE HI-MA MANG GAW DEE SI NA หากเมืองไทยมีหิมะมั้งก้อดีสินะ - If Thailand were to have some snow, that'd be great!

NA (h) นะ
This is a polite particle indicating a mild question; also used to seek agreement or confirmation. It's also a softener, making speech seem less abrupt. Can also be used to soften warnings. Can be translated variously as …you know,…you see?,…isn't it?, please, okay?

Reference 3, P. 487: A particle used at the end of a sentence to show that it is a command or an entreaty (the imperative mood).

FANG NA ฟังนะ - Listen… (used at the beginning of a sentence, to get attention).
YA BORK KHAO NA อย่าบอกเขานะ - Don't tell her, OK?
PAI NA ไปนะ - Let's go, ok?
WAN NEE NAO NA วันนี้หนาวนะ - It's cold today, isn't it?
RAWANG NA…ROT MA ระวังนะ รถมา- Careful. There's a car coming.
MAO MAI KHAP NA - เมาไม่ขับนะ - Don't drink and drive.
KHORP KHUN MAHK NA KRAP ขอบคุณมากนะครับ - Many thanks.
FAN DEE NA - ฝันดีนะ - Sweet dreams! (softener/entreaty).

NA is often combined with the particles KHRAP or KHA (see separate entries above for KHRAP AND KHA) for extra politeness.
SAM-RAP GAN WOHT NAI KHRANG NEE GAW TAWNG KHAW KHAWP KHUN THUK THAN THEE DAI WOHT HAI PHOM DUAY EEK KHRANG NA KHRAP สำหรับการโหวตในครั้งนี้ ก็ต้องขอขอบคุณทุกท่านที่ได้โหวตให้ผมด้วยอีกครั้งนะครับ - As regards the voting this time, well, may I thank everybody who voted for me again.

KHAWP KHUN MAHK NA KHA SAM-RAP GART OO-AY PAWN PEE MAI ขอบคุณมากนะคะ สำหรับการ์ดอวยพรปีใหม่ - Thanks very much for the New Year's greeting card.

NA (f) น่ะ
Similar in meaning to NA (h) นะ (see above); can be used to mean please when trying to persuade a (perhaps) reluctant person
YIM NOI NA ยิ้มหน่อยน่ะ- Smile! (said by photographer).
GIN NA…MAN AROI กินน่ะ มันอร่อย - Oh come on, eat it. It's delicious.

Can also be used to highlight the topic of a sentence, similar to the word 'right…'
FARANG NA…KHUN WA PEN YANG-RAI - ฝรั่งน่ะ คุณว่าเป็นอย่างไร - Farang…right…what do you think of them?

OI JA BAWK WA...OI NA MAI GENG PHASA ANGRIT TAE YAHK KUI MAHK MAHK อ้อยจะบอกว่า.. อ้อยน่ะไม่เก่งภาษาอังกฤษแต่อยากคุยมากๆ - I just want to say...I'm not very good at English, but I'd really like to chat to you.

NAE! (l) แหน่ะ
A variation of NEE (see below).
Reference (2), P. 293: This is included to show that an amount is considered large.
OH JA SEU BAN TANG SAM LAN NAE โอ้ จะซื้อบ้านตั้งสามล้านแหน่ะ - Oh, you're buying a house for 3 million Baht!

NAW (r) หนอ
A particle placed at the end of a question, roughly equivalent to “I wonder”; can be used to soften a sentence.

Reference 3:
A particle used often at the end of a rhetoric [sic] question especially when speaking to oneself; เมื่อไรเราจะรำรวยสักทีหนอ (เมื่อไรหนอ เราจะร่ำรวยสักที) When shall I become wealthy? (When shall I become rich?) - S.(synonym) นะ.

Reference 4:
An interrogative and reflective word.

KHAO JA PAI GAP RAO MAI NAW เขาจะไปกับเราไหมหนอ - I wonder if he’ll go with us…?
NEE KHEU ARAI NAW นี่คืออะไรหนอ - I wonder what this is?
NAN JA PEN SAT ARAI NAW นั่นจะเป็นสัตว์อะไรหนอ - I wonder what kind of animal that is?
PAI NAI NAW ไปไหนหนอ - Where are we going? (taken from a Thai cartoon).

Apparently, NAW (r) หนอ (ie rising tone) is mostly used in formal writing. In speech, it tends to be pronounced as NAW (h) น้อ ie high tone.
NAW (h) น้อ is not archaic and is still used in colloquial Thai.

NAW! (h) เนาะ, NUR! (h) เนอะ and NUR (h) เน้อ
The slightly similar-sounding particles NAW! (h) เนาะ, NUR! (h) เนอะ and NUR (h) เน้อ are colloquial variants of NA นะ (see entry above for NA นะ), used when seeking confirmation (reference 7).
KHUN PHIM THAI DAI DUAY...GENG NUR! คุณพิมไทยได้ด้วย…เก่งเนอะ - You can type Thai too. Skilful eh?
KHEE-RAY NAW! ขี้เหร่ เนอะ - Ugly, isn't it?
KHAO DOO SUAY NUR! เขาดูสวยเนอะ - She looks beautiful, doesn't she?
PLAEK NUR! แปลกเนอะ - Weird, isn't it?
EU...NA-SIA DAI DUAY NUR! อือ น่าเสียดายเนอะ - Oh boy! That's a shame, isn't it?
HEUM…NAHN LUH-EE NAW! หืม นานเลยเนาะ - Hmm. That's a long time, isn't it?

NEE (f) นี่
Can be used to indicate slight disagreement with an assumption implicit in a question or statement.
Can also be used for emphasis.
A: KHAO PEN FAEN KHUN ROR เขาเป็นแฟนคุณเหรอ - So he's your boyfriend?
B: MAI CHAI NEE ไม่ใช่นี่ - No, he isn't.

A: KHUN RUAY คุณรวย - You're rich.
B: POM MAI RUAY NEE ผมไม่รวยนี่ - No I'm not.

A: THAEW BAHN KHUN NAM MAI TUAM ROR KHA แถวบ้านคุณน้ำไม่ถ้วมเหรอคะ - It hasn't flooded in your area?
B: MAI HEN THUAM NEE ไม่เห็นถ้วมนี่ครับ - Not that I've seen.

A: NEE KHRAP BAI KHAP KHEE นี่ครับ ใบขับขี่ - Here's my driving licence.
B: MAI CHAI BAI KHAP KHEE THAI NEE ไม่ใช่ใบขับขี่ไทยนี่ - This isn't a Thai driving licence.

A: MAE…WAN NEE KHAO DOO SUAY JANG LUHY แหม...วันนี้เขาดูสวยจังเลย - Goodness! Today she looks really pretty.
B: GAW…SUAY THUK WAN NEE KRAP ก็สวยทุกวันนี่ครับ - She looks pretty everyday.

A: KHUN DOO SUAY คุณดูสวย - You look beautiful.
B: PAHK WAAN NEE KHUN NA ปากหวานนี่คุณนะ - You smoothy! (Lit. you sweet mouth!)

DEEO TEE SIA NEE เดี๋ยวตีเสียนี่ - I will hit you!

A: KHUN PHUUT ANGRIT GENG MAHK KHRAP...PHOM MAI DAI GLAENG CHOM SA-NOI คุณพูดอังกฤษเก่งมากครับ...ผมไม่ได้แกล้งชมซะหน่อย - Your English is great. I'm not just saying that!
B: GLAENG CHOM AH JI...KHRAI JA PAI GLA PHUUT WA PHASA ANGRIT KHUN NEE YAE JING JING แกล้งชม อ่าจิ...ครายจะไปกล้าพูดว่า ภาษาอังกฤษคุณนี่แย่จิงๆ อิอิ... - Yes you are. Who would dare say to someone that their English is really terrible? Ha ha...
Here NEE is used for emphasis/stress. You could leave the NEE out of B's response and it would still mean the same, although with less emphasis. A bit like the difference between terrible and really terrible.

NEE (f)-NA นี่นา
The meaning of this particle appears to depend on the context it’s used in, but it’s mainly used for emphasis.
Actually, NEE นี่ is the particle, and NA นา is added for euphony and to soften the sentence.
KHUN PEN KHON THAI NEE-NA คุณเป็นคนไทยนี่นา - So you’re Thai, aren’t you!? (emphasizes sudden discovery of hitherto unknown fact).

WAN NEE LOI GRATONG NEE-NA วันนี้ลอยกระทง นี่นา - It's Loi Grathong day today!

MAE GOR PIM THAI DAI NEE-NA...THAM-MAI THEUNG MAI YAWM PHUT LA แหม ก้อ พิมพ์ไทยได้นี่นา ทำไมถึงไม่ยอมพูดล่ะ - Jeez! You can type Thai! Why didn’t you say?

KHAO MAI DAI YAK JA MA PEN PHEUAN SOMCHAI JING JING NEE-NA เค้าไม่ได้อยากจะมาเป็นเพื่อนสมชายจริงๆ นี่นา - He really didn’t want to be Somchai’s friend. Not a bit!

KHAO KHAO JAI PHIT LAEW NEE-NA เขาเข้าใจผิดแล้วนี่นา - She misunderstood.

A: DICHAN MAI KHAO JAI KHA ดิฉันไม่เข้าใจค่ะ - I don’t understand.
B: CHAN DAI BORK SING THEE KHUN THAM LAEW NEE-NA ฉันได้บอกสิ่งที่คุณถามแล้วนี่นา - I’ve told you already!

OH! FARANG NEE-NA (NEUK WA PEN KON THAI) THAM MAI PHUT PHASA THAI GENG JANG โอ๊ะ! ฝรั่งนี่นา (นึกว่าคนไทย) ทำไมพูดภาษาไทยเก่งจัง - Oh! You’re FARANG! (I thought you were Thai). How come you speak Thai so well?
Actually NEE นี่ is the particle, and NA นา is added to soften the sentence. So the above sentence could also be written exactly as above, but without the NA นา, and retain the same meaning. (Reference 9).

PEN KHWAHM PHIT KHORNG THUH PHRAW THUR THAM NEE-NA เป็นความผิดของเธอเพราะเธอทำนี่นา - It’s you’re fault because you did it! (reference 10).

A: JAM PHOM DAI MAI KHRAP จำผมได้ไหมครับ - Can you remember me?
B: KHUN CHEU SOMCHAI...MA JAHK SURIN...CHAI MAI KHA คุณชื่อสมชาย...มาจากสุรินทร์...ใช่ไหมคะ - You're Somchai from Surin..aren't you?
A: CHAI LUR-EE...JAM GENG NEE-NA ใช่เลย...จำเก่งนี่นา - That's right! You've got a good memory!

I saw one report stating that NEE-NA is only used by females, but I've encountered it used by males too, so I don't think this is correct.

Reference 11:
Particle marking an utterance as an explanation or as an answer to a question.

NGAI! ไง
Used as a response to show that you think something is self-evident. Seems in some instances to be roughly equivalent to the English expression 'Of course!'.
A: MAN YOO THEE-NAI - มันอยู่ที่ไหน - Where is it?
B: HAI LAEW NGAI - ให้แล้วไง - But I've given it to you already.

A: KHUN RAK KHRAI - คุณรักใคร - Who do you love?
B: KHUN NGAI - คุณไง - You of course!

A: KHUN YOO THEE NAI คุณอยู่ที่ไหน - Where are you?
B: BORK LAEW NGAI บอกแล้วไง - I've told you already.

Thai joke:
Q: DEUAN THEE NEUNG MEE BAHN...DEUAN THEE SAWNG MEE ROT...DEUAN THEE SAHM MEE ARAI เดือนที่หนึ่งมีบ้าน เดือนที่สองมีรถ เดือนที่สามมีอะไร - The first month of the year I had a house, the second month I had a car. What about the third month?
A: MEE-NA-KHOM NGAI LA มีนาคมไงล่า - March!

NI! (h) นิ
Similar to SI ซิ.
KHAW WELA PLAE NI - ขอเวลาแปลนิ - I need some time to translate it.
I think this particle is exclusive to Southern Thai dialect, although it will sometimes creep into Central Thai being spoken by people from the South. Shares the same meaning as SI ซิ.

NIA (f) เนี่ย
This particle is a short form of นี่แหละ and can mean 'this one' or 'this'. It's used for emphasis and occurs in two main situations:

1. Adds emphasis (or surprise) to statements and questions; shows you'd really like to know the answer to a question.
ARAI NIA อะไรเนี่ย - What's this???

KHUN AH-YOO THAO-RAI NIA คุณอายุเท่าไรเนี่ย - How old are you?

KHUN GIN ARAI NIA คุณกินอะไรเนี่ย - What are you eating???

YOO NAI NIA อยู่ไหนเนี่ย - Where are you?

RAO JA PAI NAI GAN NIA เราจะไปไหนกันเนี่ย - Where are we going?

THAM ARAI YOO NIA ทำอะไรอยู่เนี่ย - What are you doing?

KON THAI REU ANGRIT NIA คนไทยหรืออังกฤษค่ะเนี่ย - Are you Thai or English?

เนี่ย...เขาจบมหาวิทยาลัยปีที่แล้ว...แต่ยังว่างงาน - He's graduated from university last year, but is still unemployed!

MAI DAI JUR GAN NAHN LUHY NA NIA ไม่ได้เจอกันนานเลยนะเนี่ย - Long time no see!

2. Can be placed behind a noun or person's name to add emphasis to that noun and to refer back to what is being talked about.
KHAM WA PROSTATE GLAND NIA…PHASA THAI WA ARAI คำว่า prostate gland เนี่ย…ภาษาไทยว่าอะไร -Prostate gland...How do you say that in Thai?

MAE KHUN NIA… WAN NEE TAENG TUA SUAY แหมคุณเนี่ย...วันนี้แต่งตัวสวย- My goodness...look at you! You've dressed up nicely today!

JAMES NIA...KHRAI AH เจมส์เนี่ย...ใครอ่ะ - James? Who's that?

COURT BAED THEE SUAN LUM NIA...YOO TRONG NAI KHRAP คอร์ทแบดที่สวนลุมเนี่ย อยู่ตรงไหนครับ - The badminton courts at Lumpini Park. Where are they?

NOI (l) หน่อย
Can be translated as 'a little'. Used with requests to lessen the degree of imposition.
KAW KHAO NOI DAI MAI ขอขาวหน่อยได้ไหม - Can I have a little rice?
KAW TAHM ARAI NOI SI ขอถามอะไรหน่อยสิ - Can I ask you something?
KOR DOO NOI DAI MAI ขอดูหน่อยได้ไหม - Can I have a look?
PURT PRADOO NOI เปิดประตูหน่อย - Open the door!
NGIAP NGIAP NOI เงียบๆ หน่อย - Quiet please; a little less noise please.
KHAW NAM CHA PHUHM NOI KHRUP ขอน้ำชาเพิ่มหน่อยครับ - Can I have a little more tea please.
JOOP PHOM NOI จูบผมหน่อย - Kiss me. (imperative).
HAI KHAM PRUEK-SA CHAN NOI ให้คำปรึกษาฉันหน่อย - Give me some advice, please.

PHA! (h) - YA! (f) - KHA! (f) พะย่ะค่ะ
Version of KHRAP ครับ to be used by a man to royalty.

PHAY - KHA (h) เพคะ
Version of KHA คะ/ค่ะ used by a woman to royalty.

RAWK (l) หรอก
Used after a negative statement to make it seem milder or convey a humble attitude.
A: KHUN PHUT THAI GENG KHA คุณพูดไทยเก่งค่ะ - You speak Thai well.
B: MAI GENG RAWK ไม่เก่งหรอกครับ - Not very well.
Adding RAWK to the sentence makes it sound milder and humbler.

A: WAN NEE MAI WAHNG วันนี้ไม่ว่าง - I'm not free today.
B: MAI CHEUA RAWK ไม่เชื่อหรอก - I don't believe you!
The use of RAWK here softens the reply.
The equivalent in Isaan dialect is DAWK ดอก.

SA (h) ซะ
This has varied meanings. See ref. (2) for a fuller explanation.
When appears at the end of a sentence indicates encouragement or means 'do it quickly'
GLAP BAAN SA กลับบ้านซะ - Go home.

BAWK MA SA DEE DEE บอกมาซะดีๆ - Come on and tell me now...

You may also hear KHAO PAI SA LAEW เขาไปซะแล้ว - He's gone already. Here SA LAEW is short for SIA LAEW เสียแล้ว and indicates the action has been completed already. (SIA เสีย is the formal form of SA ซะ; SA ซะ is colloquial).

SA (h) NOI (l) ซะหน่อย
SA NOI ซะหน่อย comes from สักหน่อย (a little) and when it appears in negative sentences (with MAI ไม่) it has a mild intensive force, confirming and strengthening what comes before it in the sentence. It seems in some instances to have a similar function to an exclamation mark "!" or the confirmation/affirmation phrase "...you know?", which is sometimes placed at the end of sentences in English.
GOR SUAY DEE JING JING NA...MAI DAI GLAENG CHOM SA NOI ก็สวยดีจริงๆนะ...ไม่ได้แกล้งชมซะหน่อย - It's really nice and pretty. I'm not just saying that (not kidding you).

MAI CHAI SA NOI ไม่ใช่ซะหน่อย - That's not true at all!

POM MAI DAI MEE ARAI GAP POOYING KON NAN SA NOI ผมไม่ได้มีอะไรกับผู้หญิงคนนั้น ซะหน่อย - I didn't have anything to do with that woman. (or in another sense, didn't have sexual relations - recall Bill Clinton's famous denial regarding Monica Lewinksy - "I did not have sexual relations with that woman.")

A: MEUA WAN GORN KHUN CHUAN CHAN PAI GIN KAO CHAI MAI? เมื่อวันก่อนคุณชวนฉันไปกินข้าวใช่ไหม - The other day you invited me out for a meal, didn't you?
B: POM MAI KHUR-EE CHUAN KHUN SA NOI ผมไม่เคยชวนคุณซะหน่อย - I have never asked you out!

You can hear an example of SA NOI in the film Tears of the Black Tiger, where RAMPOEY รำเพย denies to GO โก๊ะ that she is DAM's ดำ girlfriend:
GO: HAN NAE...FAEN AI DAM NEE JAI GLA DEE WOEY ฮั่นแน่...แฟนไอ้ดำนี่ใจกล้าดีเว้ย - Well, how about that DAM, you've got yourself a brave girlfriend there!
RUMPOEY: BAH...MAI CHAI FAEN SA NOI บ้า...ไม่ใช่แฟนซะหน่อย - Don't be crazy. He's not my boyfriend!

Without the MAI ไม่, SA NOI functions as a softener by eg limiting the degree of imposition.
PAI LEN NAM...WANG JA KLAI RORN SA NOI ไปเล่นน้ำ...หวังจะคลายร้อนซะหน่อย - Go and take a dip in the water. Hopefully that will cool you down a bit.

GIN NAM SA NOI MAI กินน้ำซะหน่อยไหม - Would you like a little water?

Reference (2): This is a shortened from SAK NOI ซักหน่อย and is included with statements to minimize the action. It shouldn't be used when requesting something as it would sound too abrupt; use SAK NOI ซักหน่อย instead.
DEUM BIA SA NOI SI ดื่มเบียร์ซะหน่อยซิ - Have some beer.

KHOR NAM KAENG SAK NOI SI - ขอน้ำแขงซักหน่อยซิ - Can I have a little ice?

SI! (h) ซิ
Used in the imperative and to add emphasis.
Sometimes spelt SI (l) สิ. (Apparently SI (l) สิ is the more formal spelling).
PURT PRADOO SI เปิดประตูซิ - Open the door. (Imperative).

PIT FAI SI ปิดไฟซิ - Switch off the light. (Imperative).

DEE SI - ดีซิ - Great! (emphasis).

A: KHUN CHORP MAI - คุณชอบไหม Do you like it?
B: CHORP SI ชอบซิ - I like it! (Emphasis).

The use of SI in the last two examples indicates a greater degree of pleasure/satisfaction than if it's not used.

NAHN LAEW SI KHA นานแล้วซิค่ะ - A long time ago! (Emphasis).

YA PHOOT YANG-NGAN SI อย่าพูดยังงั้นสิ - Don’t speak like that! (Imperative).

YA NGIAP SI KHA...THEE-RAK อย่าเงียบซิค่ะ...ที่รัก - Don't be so quiet, darling. (Imperative).

PAI JUH GAN THEE London SI ไปเจอกันที่ลอนดอนสิ - Let's meet in London. (Imperative).

MA NEE SI WA มานี่สิวะ - Come here...hurry up!
The use of SI WA สิวะ indicates more force/impoliteness than if it's not used. A politer way of saying 'Come here!' would be MA NEE SI KHRAP มานี่สิครับ.

You can hear an example of SI in the Thai film The Closet where the mother tells her son to wake up:
TEUN SI LOOK ตื่นสิลูก - Wake up child!

This particle means, inter alia... 'once/just this once' and is similar in usage to NOI (see above). It is used after a verb, often in the imperative mood, to lessen the degree of imposition, by indicating that the action has to be performed only once.
TORT THEE โทษที - Sorry! (excuse me).
KHOR PAI THEE - ขอไปที - Can you let me pass.
CHUAY PIT WITHAYOO THEE - ช่วยปิดวิทยุที - Please turn off the radio.
PURT webcam EEK THEE SI เปิดเว็บแคมอีกทีซิ - Turn on your webcam again.
YOO MAI...MEE PAN-HA GEE-OW GAP KHAWM ...CHUAY THEE KHA อยู่มั้ย...มีปัญหาเกี่ยวกับคอม...ช่วยทีค่ะ - Are you there? I've got a problem with my computer. Please help me.

THUH! (l)/THUHT (l) เถอะ/เถิด
Please; do; let us. Adds mild emphasis at the end of requests, orders and suggestions.
Linguistically speaking, THUH is referred to as a hortative particle, so-called because it exhorts (urges) somebody to do something.
PAI GAN THUH - ไปกันเถอะ - Let's go!
MA THUH POM JA RAW KHUN - มาเถอะ ผมจะรอคุณ - Come here. I'll wait for you.
PAI DURN LEN GAN THUH - ไปเดินเล่นกันเถอะ - Let's go for a walk.
PLIAN CHEU THUH KHRAP เปลี่ยนชื่อเถอะครับ - Please change your name!
PAI THEE HAWNG KHAWNG PHOM GAN THUH ไปที่ห้องของผมกันเถอะ - Let's go to my place.
PAI THAEK-SEE GAN THUH - ไปแท็กซี่กันเถอะ - Let's take a taxi together.

Apparently, THUH เถอะ is more colloquial/informal and used in modern Thai. THUHT เถิด is more formal and used in writing.

One source I've seen indicates THUH/THUHT เถอะ/เถิด is slightly politer than SI ซิ, although both are polite particles.

You can hear an example of its use in the Thai film, Tears of the Black Tiger, where DAM ดำ says to his childhood sweetheart/girlfriend RAMPOEY รำเพย:
GLAP DEE GWA…DEEOW MEUT KHAM JA DOHN ET AO…PA…PAI THUH กลับดีกว่า เดี๋ยวมืดค่ำจะโดนเอ็ดเอา ปะ ไปเถอะ - We'd better go. It's nearly dark already. We'll get a bollocking. Let's go!

See also the related entry in this table for HUR เหอะ, which is a less formal version of THUH เถอะ.

There are 3 forms of UH-EE, with different spellings and tones UH-EE เอย, UH-EE (l) เอ่ย and UH-EE (r) เอ๋ย:

UH-EE เอย
This is a particle placed at the end of a verse of poetry, verse or discourse.

Reference 3, p. 1064:
The end, finis, a particle used to end a piece of verse…

Reference 4, p. 578:
A poetical closing particle; a particle used in direct address, o, oh พระจันทร์เอย - Oh moon!...

KHWAN UH-EE...KHWAN UH-EE...KHWAN MA ขวัญเอย...ขวัญเอย...ขวัญมา - Oh KHWAN...Oh KHWAN…Come back! - Let your tutelary spirit return to you! (said by a mother when she picks her child up when he is frightened after a fall). (Reference 6).

UH-EE (l) เอ่ย
A question-word used in both writing and speech. It can be used by both men and women. Some Thais I’ve talked to say that it’s used more by women, others say men use it equally. It’s used to make questions sound less abrupt and cuter sounding, to show that you're close and care, and for politeness.
While it is still used in modern Thai, it’s not one of the more common particles and is not used that often.

Reference 3, p.1064:
A particle used after the interrogative word in a question or a riddle NAI GRA-PAO KHAWNG CHAN MEE ARI UH-EE ในกระเป๋าของฉันมีอะไรเอ่ย - Can you tell me what’s in my pocket?...

อะไรเอ่ย ..อยู่ในกระเป๋าของฉัน - Guess what I've got in my pocket?! [Said with a cute lilting voice.]
cf อะไร ..อยู่ในกระเป๋าของฉัน ..- What's in my pocket? [No lilt.] (Reference 7).

KHRAI UH-EE ใครเอ่ย - I wonder who that can be?
ARAI UH-EE อะไรเอ่ย - I wonder what it can be?
THAM ARAI YOO UH-EE - ทำอะไรอยู่เอ่ย - What are you doing?

NOM SAM-RAP DEK DOH WA 1 KHUAP KHEUN PAI NAI THAWNG TALAHT MEE MAHK MAI THANG NOM PONG LAE NOM NAM LEUAK CHANIT NAI DEE UH-EE นมสำหรับเด็กโตวัย 1 ขวบขึ้นไปในท้องตลาดมีมากมาย ทั้งนมผงและนมน้ำ เลือกชนิดไหนดี เอ่ย -There are many kinds of milk available for children aged above 1 year, in both powdered and liquid form. Which kind is the best? (reference 8).

UH-EE (r) เอ๋ย
Reference 3, p. 1064:
A particle used after a vocative by a man or woman, usually denoting familiarity or affection;
LOOK UH-EE JAO JA TAWNG RA-WANG TUA HAI JONG NAK ลูกเอ๋ย เจ้าจะต้องระวังตัวให้จงหนัก - My son, you have to be very, very careful.

Reference 4, p. 578: A sound denoting affection [like] dear, my dear (boy, girl, son etc).

LOOK UH-EE THEUNG WELA AHP-NAM LAEW ลูกเอ๋ย ถึงเวลาอาบน้ำแล้ว - Hey little darling, it's time for your bath! (reference 7).

WA (h)/WA (f)/WOEY (h) วะ/ว่ะ/โว้ย
Tacked onto the end of a sentence in place of the more polite KHRAP/KHA ครับ/คะ/ค่ะ to indicate variously: familiarity, contempt, dislike, disgust, annoyance, anger. Use with caution.
Sometimes spelt WA! (l) หวะ or WA (l) หว่า.
One example where you might use it: You’re woken up from your slumbers by someone shaking you awake to tell you something. You might irritably snap: ARAI WA อะไรวะ? - (What is it?), through half-closed eyes.

More examples:
ARAI WA อะไรวะ - What the hell do you want?

PAI NAI MA WA...BAWK LAEW CHAI MAI WAH YAH MA SAI ไปไหนมาวะ...บอกแล้วใช่มั้ยว่าอย่ามาสาย - Where the hell have you been? I've told you before, haven't I, not to be late.

MAWNG ARAI WA มองอะไรวะ - What the hell are you looking at?

MAI MEE TANG KHA NAM MAN ROT WA ไม่มีตังค์ค่าน้ำมันรถว่ะ - I've got no bloody petrol money!

GUHT ARAI KEUN WA เกิดไรขึ้นวะ - What the hell is happening?

Reference (1), P. 129:
An impolite or informal particle, used to indicate rudeness, anger and aggressiveness when speaking to strangers, or intimacy with close friends of equal status; WA (h) วะ is used with questions and WA (f)/WOEY (h) ว่ะ/โว้ย with statements; more common with male speech but can be used by females; it is the particle favoured by baddies on the big screen, used by drinking friends as the evening progresses, and the one to snarl in the expression THAM ARAI WA ทำอะไรวะ? ('What the hell are you doing?') if you have the misfortune to encounter an intruder in the house.

Reference (2), P. 300:
(วะ/ว่ะ) adds emphasis. It isn't polite and is used only with friends or when you're very angry.

You can hear an example of WA in the Thai film AH-THAN GAE BON PHEE อาถรรพ์แก้บนผี said by one of the girls when she tries unsuccessfully to hail a taxi and it just drives past without stopping:
ARAI WA อะไรวะ - What the hell!?

You can hear an example of WOEY in the Thai film JAN GA-PHAW จันทน์กะพัอ when one of the guests angrily makes his views about the resort clear:
JA HAI GOO THON YOO GAP REE-SORT PHEE NEE EEK ROR GOO MAI AOW WOI จะให้กูทนอยู่กับรีสอร์ทผีสิงนี้อีก หรอ กูไม่เอาเว้ย - I'm not staying another minute in this spooky old dump. No way!

As a final point it should be noted that with strangers, WA may well be taken as rude, but with friends and intimates this is not necessarily so. Here it can be a particle signifying familiarity or closeness, used in place of the more formal KHA/KHRAP. I have seen fairly innocuous conversations between friends peppered with WA, there's no real disagreement going on, it's just used in place of the politer KHA/KHRAP particles. Context determines its meaning.
Here's an example of two males (perhaps drinking buddies) discussing a member of the opposite sex:
NAI WAH PHOO-YING KON NEE SUAY MAI WA นายว่าผู้หญิงคนนี้สวยไหมวะ - Do you think this girl is beautiful?
ไม่รู้หวะ MAI ROO WA - No idea. (reference 9).
Here WA is used as a kind of bonding particle and indicates that the two men are close enough so that it can be used without causing offence.

YA (h)/YA (f) ยะ/ย่ะ
Reference (1), P. 129: An impolite or informal particle, similar to WA (h)/WA (f) (see entry above), but restricted in usage to female speakers. Used in spoken Thai.
Sometimes used by GATOEYs and gays too.

I saw one example of its usage in an Internet chat room, used by a young woman who was being asked to leave the main communal chat room and enter into a private chat ('whisper') by another chatter:
THUR SI YA GRASIP GRASAHP THANG KHEUN NA…CHAN MAI KUI GRASIP YA เธอซิยะ กระซิบกระซาบทั้งคืนน่ะ ฉันไม่คุยกระซิบย่ะ - Hey, you. Whispering all night. I don't chat in whisper!
The use of YA shows her annoyance.

Although not as rude as WA, YA is still impolite. It can also convey a sense of superiority or PRA-CHOT ประชด to a sentence (PRA-CHOT ประชด - v. to mock, ridicule, deride, treat contemptuously, to be sarcastic).
KHAO CHEU Daniel YA MAI CHAI Dariel เขาชื่อ แดเนียล ย่ะ ไม่ใช่แดเรียล - He’s called Daniel, not Dariel.
Here the use of YA conveys a sense of “Didn’t you know that?/You don’t know anything!”

YA is also frequently the particle of choice for the evil leading ladies in Thai soap operas.

Can also be used to express a sense of mock superiority or teasing, when used in playful banter between friends.

Exclamatory Particle Index

AH! NA!/AH (f)-NA! อ่ะนะ/อ่านะ
AOW (f) อ้าว
AW (f) อ้อ
AW (r) อ๋อ
CHAI-YO/CHA-YO ไชโย/ชโย
CHIP (l) HAI (r) ฉิบหาย
EH (r) เอ๋
GAM! กรรม
GEW (h) GEW (h) กิ๊วๆ
GREET (h) กรี๊ด
HAN! (f)-NAE! (f) ฮั่นแน่
HOH (r) โห - See entry for OH (f) - HO โอ้โฮ
HUH (h) เฮ้อ/HUH เฮอ
HUH-EE (h) เฮ้ย
MAE (r) แหม
MAN KHEEO (f) มันเขี้ยว
MAN (l) SAI (f) หมั่นไส้
NGA!/NGA! (f) งะ/ง่ะ
OH (f) - HO โอ้โฮ
OO-EE! (h) อุ๊ย
PA! (h) ป๊ะ
PAEW (l) แป่ว
TAI (h)/TAI (h) LAEW (h)/TAI (h) JING ต๊าย/ต๊ายแล้ว/ต๊ายจริง
THO (f) โท่
UH-EE (h) เอ๊ย
WAH (h) ว้า
WAI (h) ว้าย
WEN-GAM! เวรกรรม
YAY (h) เย้

Exclamatory Particle List

AH! NA!/AH (f)-NA! อ่ะนะ/อ่านะ
Slang word used in speech and Internet chat rooms. Not really a particle, but I have included it nevertheless since it is quite common in Thai but tends not to be listed in dictionaries. Usually used on its own, and not at the end of a sentence. Can be translated variously as "Oh, I see", "Ah ha", "Oh yeah", "Uhm" or "Hmm". 'Used mainly by young people (teenagers) trying to sound cute'.
A: WAN NEE PAI TALAAT วันนี้ไปตลาด - I'm going to the market today.
B: AH NA อ่ะนะ - Ah ha.

AOW (f) อ้าว
Oh! - indicates surprise/something unexpected (in a not necessarily positive way) eg you might say you're leaving, and someone may exclaim: AOW...JA PAI LAEW ROR อ้าว จะไปแล้วเหรอ - Oh! You're leaving already?
Can be used by both males and females.
Another example:
AOW THAM-MAI MAI PAI LA อ้าว...ทำไมไม่ไปล่ะ - Oh! Why didn't you go?
The AOW อ้าว here indicates surprise - you just discovered the person hadn't gone somewhere (but you had expected them to go).

AW (f) อ้อ
Yes, uh-huh, I see, is that so, Ah! (now I understand - realisation).

AW (r) อ๋อ
Oh, I see.

CHAI-YO ไชโย
Exclamation of delight/joy like: Hurray, hurrah; hooray, hip hip hooray!
Can also be spelt CHA-YO ชโย.
CHAI-YO...JAWNG DAI LAEW KHAWT BAED SUAN LUM WAN PHUT 2-4 THUM KRAI SON-JAI BAHNG KHRAP ไชโย..จองได้แล้ว คอร์ทแบดสวนลุม วันพุธ 2-4ทุ่ม ใครสนใจบ้างครับ - Hooray! Booked a badminton court at Lumpini Park on Wednesday between 8 and 10 PM. Anyone interested? (seen on a badminton internet message board).
Also seen on the Singha beer TV advert when they celebrate.

CHIP (l) HAI (r) ฉิบหาย
A slang emphasis word roughly equivalent to "Damn!" or "Fuck!"
CHIP HAI ฉิบหาย - God damn!; Shit!
HEW CHIP HAI หิวฉิบหาย - I'm damn hungry!
NAO CHIP HAI หนาวฉิบหาย - It's damn cold!
To my ear, CHIP ฉิบ sounds as though it's pronounced mid (or high tone) in normal conversation.

EH (r) เอ๋
Uh? (For when you can't remember something or figure it out).
เอ๋ มันอยู่ที่ไหน - Uh?…Where's it gone?

GEW (h) GEW (h) กิ๊วๆ
This is a slang word used amongst friends for gentle teasing, similar to the English expression 'Na-na nana-na!'
You might say this to your friend when eg he/she makes a mistake, gets an answer wrong, or if you beat them in a race etc.
GEW GEW NAH MAI AI กิ๊วๆ หน้าไม่อาย - Na-na nana-na!...Shame on you!

GREET (h) กรี๊ด
Onomatopoeia from the sound of screaming.
Mainly used by girls to express variously fear, surprise, excitement, delight etc. eg a girl may GREET when she sees a ghost, or at a pop concert etc.
Sometimes spelt กรี๊ดๆ, กรี้ด, กรีด etc.

HAN! (f)-NAE! (f) ฮั่นแน่
An exclamation of surprise, on discovering a secret.
Reference 4:
Look at you!; How about that!

A: KHUN ROO MAI…NOI LEN CHOO คุณรู้ไหม...น้อยเล่นชู้ - Did you know, NOI's having an affair?
B: HAN NAE ฮั่นแน่ - How about that!

You can hear an example of HAN NAE in the film Tears of the Black Tiger, where GO โก๊ะ mocks DAM ดำ about his female friend RAMPOEY รำเพย:
HAN NAE...FAEN AI DAM NEE JAI GLA DEE WOI ฮั่นแน่...แฟนไอ้ดำนี่ใจกล้าดีเว้ย - Well, how about that DAM, you've got yourself a brave girlfriend there!

HUH (h) เฮ้อ/HUH เฮอ
Onomatopoeia from the sound of sighing.
Would use it when you are eg dissatisfied/bored/relieved/frustrated with something.

HUR! RAK KON MEE JAO KHAWNG...TAM NGAI DEE WA? เฮ้อ! รักคนมีเจ้าของ ทำไงดีหว่า ? Sigh!...I love someone who's already taken. What the hell can I do about it?

HUR!! REUANG MAN NA-SAO เฮ้อ!! เรื่องมันน่าเศร้า - Sigh. It's a sad story.

HUR...KHAO PAI LAEW เฮ้อ...เขาไปแล้ว - Whew! (relief) She's gone.

Dictionaries tend to spell it เฮอ/เฮ้อ but I have also come across it spelt HUR (f) เห้อ.

HUH-EE (h) เฮ้ย
Hey! (calling attention). Not necessarily polite.
HUR-EE...MUAH LAEW...THAM DEE DEE DEH เฮ้ย...มั่วแล้ว...ทำดีๆเด๊ะ - Hey, that's wrong. Do it properly!
HUR-EE...YA MA YOONG GAP FAEN PHOM SI เฮ้ย...อย่ามายุ่งกับแฟนผมซิ - Hey! Don't mess with my girlfriend!

MAE (r) แหม
Jeez!, my goodness! (surprise/admiration).
Used by both genders.
MAE GOR PIM THAI DAI NEE NA...THAM-MAI THEUNG MAI YAWM PHUT LA แหม ก้อ พิมพ์ไทยได้นี่นา ทำไมถึงไม่ยอมพุดล่ะ - Jeez! You can type Thai! Why didn’t you say?

Can also be used to convey sarcasm or that you're joking
MAE KHIT WA NANG SAO THAI แหม คิดว่านางสาวไทย - Jeez, thought you were Miss Thailand!!!

MAN KHEEO (f) มันเขี้ยว
Expression/exclamation, roughly equivalent to "You're so cute, I could eat you!"
You will often see Thai women say this while cuddling a baby and giving him/her an affectionate little pinch on the cheek.
Often also used by Thai females to their boyfriends, when canoodling and cuddling.
Can be used by both males and females.

MAN (l) SAI (f) หมั่นไส้
Dictionaries invariably translate this as v. To be disgusted with but colloquially the most frequent use I see is as an expression/exclamation meaning "Don't be cute!", "Tone it down a little!" or "That's a little over-the-top!"
This appears to be a case where the Thai language is richer than the English language since there doesn't seem to be any simple direct translation of MAN SAI into English.
It's used when you think someone is over-acting, and can be used as a mild rebuke of someone acting too cute or charming e.g. trying to crawl to the boss, kissing or being too romantic with your partner in public, using too sweet expressions, wearing strange clothes, etc.
If SOMCHAI and OI were always kissing and holding hands in public, someone might remark to their friend:
MAN SAI หมั่นไส้ - That's a bit much. I wish they'd tone it down a little!

Or if someone is trying to suck up to somebody too much (like to the boss, or your mother-in-law, to win Brownie points), people might gossip:
OO-EE MAN SAI...MAN SAI JING JING อุ๊ยหมั่นไส้...หมั่นไส้จริงๆ - Oh man you got to be kidding me, can you believe this guy? (reference7).

An example I saw in an internet chat room:
Woman: KHOR DOO ROOP KHUN DAI MAI KHA ขอดูรูปคุณได้ไหมคะ - Can I see your photo?
Man: NEE KRAP นี่ครับ - Here it is.
Woman: MAN LEK GURN PAI มันเล็กเกินไป - But it's so small...
Man: ROOP LEK TAE JAI DEE รูปเล็กแต่ใจดี ;-) - Small photo, but big heart/kind-hearted! ;-)
Woman: MAN SAI หมั่นไส้ - Don't be cute!

DI-CHAN MAN SAI THUR MAHK THEE THAM GARIYA DEE JAI GURN KHUAN MEUA KHAO CHUAN THUR PAI GIN KHAO DUAY ดิฉันหมั่นไส้เธอมากที่ทำกิริยาดีใจเกินควร เมื่อเขาชวนเธอไปกินข้าวด้วย - I thought her show of delight was so over-the-top when he asked her out for a meal. (reference 12).

NGA!/NGA! (f) งะ/ง่ะ
An exclamation-slang word. Used mainly in chat rooms, comics etc. Can be used in speech too, but not so common. Indicates surprise eg someone may say something surprising, and the listener may reply: ARAI NGA อะไรง่ะ (or just NGA ง่ะ), meaning 'What???'.
A : KHAO CHORP KHAE JA-MOOK เขาชอบแคะจมูก - He's always picking his nose.
B: NGA!!!! ง่ะ - Ugh! What!!!/Ugh! Disgusting!!!

Although it can be used by any age group, NGA ง่ะ/งะ is mainly used by teenagers.
Apparently it’s used as a response to show you understand what’s been said to you but the answer’s not what you were expecting and you’re momentarily not quite sure how to respond.
A: KHUN AH-YOO THAO RAI KHRAP คุณอายุเท่าไหรครับ - How old are you?
B: SAHM SIP KHA สามสิบค่ะ - 30.
A: NGA ง่ะ (A thought B was much younger since she only looks 20).

A: WAN NEE KHUN YAHK THAHN ARAI PEN AHAHN YEN KHA วันนี้คุณอยากทานอะไรเป็นอาหารเย็นคะ - What would you like for dinner?
B: PHOM YAHK LAWNG THAHN NGOO PHAT GA-PHAO ฉันอยากลองทานงูผัดกะเพรา - I would like to eat stir fried snake with basil.
A: NGA ง่ะ

I also sometimes see it used in internet chat room quizzes. When the correct answer is finally announced, some of the chatters say NGA ง่ะ in response to seeing the correct answer.

NGA ง่ะ can also be spelt ง่า.
Sometimes NGA also appears to be used in a similar way to the English ‘UHM อืม’ - i.e. just used as a sound to express uncertainty or fill a lull in a conversation.

OH (f) - HO โอ้โฮ
Wow!, what about that! Show's amazement/surprise. You will sometimes hear football pundits using this while commentating on an exciting game.
Sometimes it's shortened to just HO (r) โห.
OH-HO...SEK-SEE JING JING โอ้โฮ...เซ็กซี่จริง ๆ - Wow! That's really sexy! (heard said by a Thai male watching a cute Thai girl dancing in a club).
Note that in normal conversation the tones of OH-HO appear to be falling-rising ie as though it's spelt โอ้โห.

OO-EE! (h) อุ๊ย
Ouch!, oops!, Oh! (pain, mishap, tired, fed up, surprise).
Mainly used by women.
OO-EE...PHOOT ARAI AWK PAI อุ๊ย...พูดอะไรออกไป - Oops! What have I just said?! (slip of the tongue).
OO-EE...CHAN LEUM SEU AEP-PHUHN KHA อุ๊ย! ฉันลืมซื้อแอปเปิลค่ะ - Oh! I forgot to buy some apples.
OO-EE...YING KHIT YING SA-YAWNG อุ๊ย...ยิ่งคิดยิ่งสยอง - Oh my! The more I think about it, the more frightening it becomes.

PA! (h) ป๊ะ Huh! (when angry or annoyed).
PA KHAE NEE ENG ROR ป๊ะ แค่นี้เองเหรอ - Huh! Is that all?

PAEW (l) แป่ว
You're unlikely to find this word in a dictionary; it's a slang word used mainly by young people (up to 30 years old, maybe) meaning to be disappointed, to be frustrated, to lose face, to be broken-faced.
It's often used when you make a mistake in front of other people eg a pupil, answering a teacher's question incorrectly in front of the class, may be tempted to say PAEW แป่ว.
It's derived from the word PAEW (f) แป้ว, meaning deflated, or to be flat (like a balloon).
A: KHUN DOO LAW JANG คุณดูหล่อจัง - You look very handsome.
B: KHORP KHUN KHRAP ขอบคุณครับ - Thank you. (Smiling and accepting the compliment).
A: TAE KHUN DOO GAE PAI NOI NA แต่คุณดูแก่ไปหน่อยนะ - But...you look a little old.
B: PAEW แป่ว !! (Right now you feel deflated, like a punctured balloon).

A: PEN FAEN GAN DAI MAI เป็นแฟนกันได้ไหม - Do you want to be my girlfriend?
B: KOR THOT…MEE FAEN LAEW ขอโทษ...มีแฟนแล้ว - Sorry, I'm already going out with someone.
A: PAEW แป่ว !!
(Above 2 examples - reference 9).

PAEW… NA TAEK LA-EE-UT LUR-EE AH KRAP แป่ว!!!!หน้าแตกละเอียดเลยอ่ะคัรบ - PAEW - I lost a lot of face there (was really embarrassed).

POM TANG JAI PAI PHAK THEE-NAN KHRAP THO PAI SAWP THAHM GAWN KHAO GAW BORK WA JAWNG MAI DAI HAI LAWNG PAI DOO EHNG LAEW GAN WA WAHNG REU PLAO…PAW PHOM PAI THEUNG GAW REE PAI THEE NEE LUH-EE…TAE KHAO BAWK WA MAI RAP KON THAI…PAEW…THAM HAI PHOM ROO-SEUK YAE MAHK LUH-EE ผมตั้งใจจะไปพักที่นั่นนะครับ โทรไปสอบถามก่อนเค้าก็บอกว่าจองไม่ได้ให้ลองไปดูเองแล้วกันว่าว่างหรือเปล่า พอผมไปถึงก็รี่ไปที่นี่เลย แต่เค้าบอกว่าไม่รับคนไทย แป่ว! ทำให้ผมรู้สึกแย่มากเลย - I had intended to stay there. So I phoned up and they said you can't book in advance, you have to turn up in person and see if anything's free. But when I arrived there, they said we don't accept Thais. How frustrating! I felt really awful.

CHAN HA RAHN AROI THEE PHEE TOM KUR-EE GIN SOOT THAI…GOR HA JUR TAE RAN PIT…GAW TAWNG GLAP PAI PEUNG RAHN DUHM TRONG KHAHM ROHNG RAEM ฉันหาร้านอร่อยที่พี่ตั้มเคยกินสุดท้ายก็หาเจอแต่ร้านปิด แป่ว...ก็ต้องกลับไปพึ่งร้านเดิมตรงข้ามโรงแรม - I was looking for that delicious restaurant that TOM ate at last time. I found it but it was closed. How frustrating! So I had to go back to the restaurant opposite my hotel.

TAI (h)/TAI (h) LAEW (h)/TAI (h) JING ต๊าย/ต๊ายแล้ว/ต๊ายจริง
Oh no!, what a mess!, good Lord! (shock, horror), oh my God!, I don't believe it!
Used mainly by females, where it has a high tone.

THO (f) โท่
Oh my God! (short for the colloquial expression PHOOT THO พุดโท่). Archaic and rarely used in modern Thai.

UH-EE (h) เอ๊ย
Reference 4, p. 578:
Exclamation uttered on making a mistake, No! I mean…

Reference 3, p. 1064:
An exclamation expressing sudden surprise or sudden discovery, sometimes equivalent to the parenthetic(al) ‘I mean’; PHOO-YING - UH-EE - SOO-PHARP SA-TREE - PHOO NEUNG DAI MA HA PHOM THEE THAM NGAAN - ผู้หญิง - เอ๊ย - สุภาพสตรี - ผู้หนึ่งได้มาหาผมที่ทำงาน - A girl, I mean a lady, came to see me at work.

WAH (h) ว้า
Oh no!, Shit!, Damn! (reference 4).
Can be used by both males and females.
WAH...JA SAWP PRUNG NEE ว้า! จะสอบพรุ่งนี้ - Oh no! I've got exams tomorrow.

WAH...PHRUNG NEE PURT TUHM LAEW ROR...PHUHNG PIT TUHM PAI YOK YOK EHNG ว้า พรุ่งนี้เปิดเทอมแล้วเหรอ...เพิ่งปิดเทอมไปหยกๆ เอง - Damn!...School starts tomorrow does it? We only just closed for the holidays!

ว้าย WAI (h)
Eek!; Oh! (reference 4).
WAI...PEN LAMOK ว๊ายยย เป้งลาโม๊ก - Eek!…It's obscene! (Note Thai slang spelling here of เป็น etc).

WEN-GAM! เวรกรรม
Dictionaries often translate this as retribution, fate etc but colloquially the most frequent use I see seems to be as an exclamatory particle meaning Jesus!, God Almighty!, Damn!, How awful! etc.
In speech, sometimes abbreviated to just GAM กรรม or WEN เวร.
An example of when you might use it is when eg your car won't start you might bang the bonnet (hood) and in frustration say GAM กรรม!
In chat rooms sometimes abbreviated/spelt as GAM กำ, WEN เวร or WENG-GAM เวงกำ.

YAY (h) เย้
Exclamation used when feeling delighted. A bit like, Yes! or Yahoo!
YAY...HAI PUAY LAEW...DEE JAI JANG เย้ๆๆๆๆหายป่วยแล้วดีใจจัง - Yes! I’m feeling better now. I’m so happy!

YAY WAN THEE 31 P.K. NEE KROP 22 PEE LAEW SI NA เย้ วันที่ 31 พ.ค.นี้ครบ 22 ปีแล้วสินะ - Yahoo! I'll be 22 this May 31st.


Tones and Vowel Lengths
I have used the following abbreviations to represent the five tones of Central Thai in transliterations:
Low (l); high (h); falling (f); rising (r); mid - .
An exclamation mark at the end of a transliteration indicates a short vowel length as opposed to a long one
SI! (h) ซิ (short vowel length; high tone).
NOI (l) หน่อย (long vowel length, low tone).


1. Thai - An Essential Grammar - David Smyth (2002) P.125-137.
2. Thai Reference Grammar - The Structure of Spoken Thai - James Higbie and Snea Thinsan (2003) P.287-300.
3. So Sethaputra's Thai - English Dictionary (1996?)
4. Domnern-Sathiengpong Thai English Dictionary, 2nd Edition, Amarin (1999).
5. http://www.bangkokpost.com/education/site2003/puoc0703.htm.
6. http://www.thaiarc.tu.ac.th/host/thaiarc/thai/peansiri.htm (2002) .
7. Message forum at http://www.thailandguidebook.com/cgi-bin/forum/ikonboard.cgi (2003).
8. http://www.meadjohnson.bms.co.th/t_momch3.htm (2004).
9. http://www.thaivisa.com/forum/index.php.
10. http://www.thai-language.com.
11. http://www.seasite.niu.edu/thai/thaidict/thailex8.htm.
12. Lexitron Online dictionary.
13. Pragmatic Characteristics of Infant Directed Speech, Sudaporn Luksaneeyanawin et al, Linguistics Research Unit, Department of Linguistics, Faculty of Arts, Chulalongkorn University http://tinyurl.com/bysl6.


Thanks are due to KHUN YULAN for proof-reading this material and her helpful suggestions, comments and corrections.

Please send any comments and corrections here.

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